Hair Mercury in Breast-Fed Infants Exposed to Thimerosal-Preserved Vaccines

Marques RC, Dorea JG, Fonseca MF, Bastos WR, Malm O. Hair mercury in breast-fed infants exposed to thimerosal-preserved vaccines. Eur J Pediatr. 2007 Sep;166(9):935-41. Epub 2007 Jan 20.

Because of uncertainties associated with a possible rise in neuro-developmental deficits among vaccinated children, thimerosal-preserved vaccines have not been used since 2004 in the USA (with the exception of thimerosal-containing influenza vaccines which are routinely recommended for administration to pregnant women and children), and the EU but are widely produced and used in other countries. We investigated the impact of thimerosal on the total Hg in hair of 82 breast-fed infants during the first 6 months of life. The infants received three doses of the hepatitis-B vaccine (at birth, 1 and 6 months) and three DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis) doses at 2, 4 and 6 months, according to the immunization schedule recommended by the Ministry of health of Brazil. The thimerosal in vaccines provided an ethylmercury (EtHg) exposure of 25 microgHg at birth, 30, 60 and 120 days, and 50 microgHg at 180 days. The exposure to vaccine-EtHg represents 80% of that expected from total breast milk-Hg in the first month but only 40% of the expected exposure integrated in the 6 months of breastfeeding. However, the Hg exposure corrected for body weight at the day of immunization was much higher from thimerosal- EtHg (5.7 to 11.3 microgHg/kg b.w.) than from breastfeeding (0.266 microgHg/kg b.w.). While mothers showed a relative decrease (-57%) in total hair-Hg during the 6 months lactation there was substantial increase in the infant’s hair-Hg (446%). We speculate that dose and parenteral mode of thimerosal-EtHg exposure modulated the relative increase in hair-Hg of breast-fed infants at 6 months of age.

A Modified Self-Controlled Case Series Method to Examine Association Between Multidose Vaccinations and Death

Kuhnert R, Hecker H, Poethko-Muller C, Schlaud M, Vennemann M, Whitaker HJ, Farrington CP. A modified self-controlled case series method to examine association between multidose vaccinations and death. Stat Med. 2011 Mar 15;30(6):666-77. Epub 2010 Nov 30.

The self-controlled case series method (SCCS) was developed to analyze the association between a time-varying exposure and an outcome event. We consider penta- or hexavalent vaccination as the exposure and unexplained sudden unexpected death (uSUD) as the event. The special situation of multiple exposures and a terminal event requires adaptation of the standard SCCS method. This paper proposes a new adaptation, in which observation periods are truncated according to the vaccination schedule. The new method exploits known minimum spacings between successive vaccine doses. Its advantage is that it is very much simpler to apply than the method for censored, perturbed or curtailed post-event exposures recently introduced. This paper presents a comparison of these two SCCS methods by simulation studies and an application to a real data set. In the simulation studies, the age distribution and the assumed vaccination schedule were based on real data. Only small differences between the two SCCS methods were observed, although 50 per cent of cases could not be included in the analysis with the SCCS method with truncated observation periods. By means of a study including 300 uSUD, a 16-fold risk increase after the 4th dose could be detected with a power of at least 90 per cent. A general 2-fold risk increase after vaccination could be detected with a power of 80 per cent. Reanalysis of data from cases of the German case-control study on sudden infant death (GeSID) resulted in slightly higher point estimates using the SCCS methods than the odds ratio obtained by the case-control analysis. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A One Year Followup of Chronic Arthritis Following Rubella and Hepatitis B Vaccination Based Upon Analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) Database








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A One Year Followup of Chronic Arthritis Following Rubella and Hepatitis B Vaccination Based Upon Analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) Database










Posted by vaccinesme, in Articles


Authored by PubMed






Topics:
Rubella
•
Hepatitis B
•
Arthritis
















Geier DA, Geier MR. A one year followup of chronic arthritis following rubella and Hepatitis B vaccination based upon analysis of the vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2002 Nov-Dec;20(6):767-71.

OBJECTIVES: This analysis examined the incidence rate of chronic arthritis adverse reactions reported following adult rubella and Hepatitis B vaccinations. In this analysis, etiologic mechanisms for chronic arthritis following adult rubella and Hepatitis B vaccines were also explored. METHODS: The vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database was analyzed for the incidence rate of reported cases of chronic arthritis in comparison to Tetanus-diphtheria (Td) and tetanus toxoid adult vaccine control groups. RESULTS: Chronic arthritis adverse reactions following adult rubella vaccination were primarily reported in females (female/male ratio = 3.0), at about 45 years-old, and at a mean onset time of 10-11 days following vaccination. Chronic arthritis adverse reactions following adult Hepatitis B vaccination were also primarily reported in females(female/male ratio = 3.5), at about 33 years-old, and with a mean onset time of 16 days following vaccination. The incidence rates of chronic arthritis following adult rubella and adult Hepatitis B vaccinations were statistically significantly increased, by chi 2 analysis, in comparison to the adult vaccine control groups. The attributable risk of chronic arthritis following adult rubella vaccine ranged from 32 to 53 and from 5.1 to 9.0 following adult Hepatitis B vaccine in comparison to the adult vaccine control groups. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that adult rubella and adult Hepatitis B vaccines were statistically associated with chronic arthritis which persisted for at least one year. The etiology for these adverse reactions may involve autoimmune mechanisms. Furthermore, potential biases in the reporting rates of adverse reactions to VAERS were not observed.







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A Possible Central Mechanism in Autism Spectrum Disorders








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Blaylock RL. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1. Altern Ther health Med. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):46-53.

The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of related neurodevelopmental disorders that have been increasing in incidence since the 1980s. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected from cases, a central mechanism has not been offered. A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminum and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain. It has now been shown that chronic microglial activation is present in autistic brains from age 5 years to age 44 years. A considerable amount of evidence, both experimental and clinical, indicates that repeated microglial activation can initiate priming of the microglia and that subsequent stimulation can produce an exaggerated microglial response that can be prolonged. It is also known that one phenotypic form of microglia activation can result in an outpouring of neurotoxic levels of the excitotoxins, glutamate and quinolinic acid. Studies have shown that careful control of brain glutamate levels is essential to brain pathway development and that excesses can result in arrest of neural migration, as well as dendritic and synaptic loss. It has also been shown that certain cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, can, via its receptor, interact with glutamate receptors to enhance the neurotoxic reaction. To describe this interaction I have coined the term immunoexcitotoxicity, which is described in this article.







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Children Vaccinated With MMR and Higher Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

Ahlgren C, Toren K, Oden A, Andersen O. A population-based case-control study on viral infections and vaccinations and subsequent multiple sclerosis risk. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24(9):541-52. Epub 2009 Jul 26.

Viral infections are probably involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent cohort study in the Gothenburg population revealed no change in MS incidence associated with the introduction of the Swedish measles, mumps and rubella vaccination programmes. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether these infections or vaccinations, and two other infections, varicella and infectious mononucleosis, influence MS risk. We performed a population-based case-control study in Gothenburg that included 509 MS cases and 2,067 controls, born 1959-1986. Data on infections and vaccinations were obtained from questionnaires and from child health and school health records. We found no significant associations between measles, mumps, rubella or varicella and MS risk. These results were consistent between the two source materials. Infectious mononucleosis was associated with significantly higher MS risk (odds ratio 2.03, 95% CI 1.52-2.73). Overall, there was no significant association between measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and MS risk, while those MMR vaccinated before age ten only were at significantly higher MS risk (odds ratio 4.92, 95% CI 1.97-12.20). Those MMR vaccinated both before and after age ten had intermediate MS risk. Infection with measles, mumps, rubella and varicella did not influence MS risk in contrast to infectious mononucleosis which conferred doubled MS risk. The association with ‘early’ MMR vaccination only was an isolated finding, limited by a small number of subjects and multiple testing. Most likely this was a chance finding. Future studies could investigate it on an a priori basis.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine Administered Simultaneously With Measles Vaccine Is Associated With Increased Morbidity and Poor Growth in Girls

Agergaard J, Nante E, Poulstrup G, Nielsen J, Flanagan KL, Ostergaard L, Benn CS, Aaby P. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine administered simultaneously with measles vaccine is associated with increased morbidity and poor growth in girls. A randomised trial from Guinea-Bissau. Vaccine. 2011 Jan 10;29(3):487-500. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

BACKGROUND: Combined vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles vaccine (MV) has been associated with increased mortality in observational studies. Among children missing MV and a dose of DTP and oral polio vaccine (OPV), we conducted a randomised trial of providing MV+DTP+OPV simultaneously, as currently recommended, or MV+OPV only, and examined the effect on morbidity and growth. We hypothesised that the MV+OPV group would experience less morbidity and grow better. Due to previous observations of sex differences in the non-specific effects of vaccinations, we analysed all data stratified by sex. METHODS: At the Bandim health Project in Guinea-Bissau, 568 children who were due to receive MV and who were missing either DTP3 or DTP booster were enrolled in the study. A subgroup of 332 children was followed intensively to register adverse events and infections in the first month after vaccination. A subgroup of 276 children was followed every third month for a year to monitor growth. All children were followed for one year for infectious diseases, consultations, and hospitalisations. RESULTS: As expected, adverse events were more common in the MV+DTP+OPV group; diarrhoea and use of medication were increased among girls but not among boys (both p=0.02, test of interaction between DTP and sex). Febrile disease with vesicular rash, as well as consultations and hospitalisations tended to be more common in the MV+DTP+OPV group than in the MV+OPV group; the hazard ratio (HR) for febrile disease with vesicular rash was 1.86 (1.00; 3.47). The strongest tendencies for more febrile diseases and hospitalisations in the MV+DTP+OPV group were found in girls. Overall, growth did not differ by randomisation group. However, results differed by sex. Girls in the MV+DTP+OPV group had a consistent pattern of worse z-scores for weight, height, and mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC) than girls in the MV+OPV group. The effect was opposite for boys, with boys in the MV+OPV group faring worse than those in the MV+DTP+OPV group, the interaction test for sex and DTP being significant for weight at 6 and 9 months, for MUAC at 12 months and for weight-for-height at 3 and 9 months after randomisation. CONCLUSION: This is the first randomised trial of the non-specific effects of DTP and supports that these effects may be sex-differential and of clinical and anthropometric importance. Combined vaccination with DTP+MV+OPV may be detrimental for girls. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nutritional and Food Protection Against Epidemic Emerging Neuropathy. Epidemiological Findings in the Unique Disease-Free Urban Area of Cuba

Barnouin J, Verdura Barrios T, Chassagne M, Perez Cristia R, Arnaud J, Fleites Mestre P, Montoya ME, Favier A. Nutritional and food protection against epidemic emerging neuropathy. Epidemiological findings in the unique disease-free urban area of Cuba. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2001 Sep;71(5):274-85.

A survey was conducted through the SECUBA (SEguridad alimentaria en CUba y Buena Alimentacion) research program in Cuban healthy smokers living in Guantanamo and in Havana. The aim of the survey was to investigate biological and nutritional factors connected with the occurrence of zero epidemic neuropathy (EN) observed in Guantanamo urban area since the disease emerged in Cuba. Blood riboflavin status and carotenoid and Selenium concentrations were higher in Guantanamo than in Havana smokers. Food dietary quantities of plantain banana, pepper (Capsicum spp.), bovine meat and milk products were higher in Guantanamo. Inversely, foods rich in cholesterol, especially eggs, were more consumed in Havana. Through riboflavin, carotenoid and Selenium contents and specific antioxidants substances (indoleamines, capsaicin), the foods more consumed in Guantanamo could be considered as EN protective factors. Disease protective effects could be exerted via enhancement of defence mechanisms against free radical damage and related mechanisms focused on redox recycling of glutathione and local protection from carotenoids. Finally, the results of the present study should help Cuba, through a better EN control, to improve long-term food safety and define healthier dietary habits.


This research was conducted to find out why there was no disease incidence in Guantanomo despite the fact the virus was present in that region. The conclusion comes down to the food that those people were eating and the nutritional benefit it afforded in providing a healthy, robust immune function.

An Increase in Selenium Intake Improves Immune Function and Poliovirus Handling in Adults With Marginal Selenium Status

Broome CS, McArdle F, Kyle JA, Andrews F, Lowe NM, Hart CA, Arthur JR, Jackson MJ. An increase in Selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal Selenium status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):154-62.

BACKGROUND: Dietary Selenium intakes in many countries, including the United Kingdom, are lower than international recommendations. No functional consequences of these lower intakes have been recognized, although experimental studies suggest that they might contribute to reduced immune function, increased cancer incidence, and increased susceptibility to viral disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess whether administration of small Selenium supplements to otherwise healthy UK subjects leads to functional changes in immune status and the rates of clearance and mutation of a picornavirus: live attenuated polio vaccine. DESIGN: Twenty-two adult UK subjects with relatively low plasma Selenium concentrations (sodium selenite) or placebo daily for 15 wk in a double-blind study. All subjects received an oral live attenuated poliomyelitis vaccine after 6 wk and enriched stable (74)Se intravenously 3 wk later. RESULTS: Selenium supplementation increased plasma Selenium concentrations, the body exchangeable Selenium pool (measured by using (74)Se), and lymphocyte phospholipid and cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activities. Selenium supplements augmented the cellular immune response through an increased production of interferon gamma and other cytokines, an earlier peak T cell proliferation, and an increase in T helper cells. Humoral immune responses were unaffected. Selenium-supplemented subjects also showed more rapid clearance of the poliovirus, and the poliovirus reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction products recovered from the feces of the supplemented subjects contained a lower number of mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that these subjects had a functional Selenium deficit with suboptimal immune status and a deficit in viral handling. They also suggest that the additional 100 microg Se/d may be insufficient to support optimal function.

Protective Role of Selenium Against Hepatitis B Virus and Primary Liver Cancer in Qidong








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Yu SY, Zhu YJ, Li WG. Protective role of Selenium against Hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997 Jan;56(1):117-24.

High rates of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and primary liver cancer (PLC) are present in Qidong county. Epidemiological surveys demonstrated an inverse association between Selenium (Se) level and regional cancer incidence, as well as HBV infection. Four-year animal studies showed that dietary supplement of Se reduced the HBV infection by 77.2% and liver precancerous lesion by 75.8% of ducks, caused by exposure to natural environmental etiologic factors. An intervention trial was undertaken among the general population of 130,471. Individuals in five townships were involved for observation of the preventive effect of Se. The 8-yr follow-up data showed reduced PLC incidence by 35.1% in selenized table salt supplemented vs the nonsupplemented population. On withdrawal of Se from the treated group, PLC incidence rate began to increase. However, the inhibitory response to HBV was sustained during the 3-yr cessation of treatment. The clinical study among 226 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg)-positive persons provided either 200 micrograms of Se in the form of selenized yeast tablet or an identical placebo of yeast tablet daily for 4 yr showed that 7 of 113 subjects were diagnosed as having PLC in the placebo group, whereas no incidence of PLC was found in 113 subjects supplemented with Se. Again on cessation of treatment, PLC developed at a rate comparable to that in the control group, demonstrating that a continuous intake of Se is essential to sustain the chemopreventive effect.







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Chemoprevention Trial of Human Hepatitis With Selenium Supplementation in China

Yu SY, Li WG, Zhu YJ, Yu WP, Hou C. Chemoprevention trial of human hepatitis with Selenium supplementation in China. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1989 Apr-May;20(1-2):15-22.

A three-year study has been conducted for prevention of infectious hepatitis with supplementation of table salt fortified with 15 ppm anhydrous sodium selenite to the general population of 20,847 persons in a township M.Z. at Qidong County, Jiangsu Province, China. The results showed that the incidence of virus hepatitis infection in the test township was significantly lower than that of controls provided with normal table salt. The incidence rate of infectious hepatitis in the treated township M.Z. was 1.20 and 4.52 per 1,000, whereas the average incidence in the 6 surrounding control townships was 2.96 and 10.48 per 1,000 in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The incidence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg+) was 13.2% vs 19.23% for males and 10.42% vs 12.24% for females in the supplemented vs nonsupplemented neighboring township, respectively. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that a low grain Se content is associated with a high regional incidence of Hepatitis B virus infections.