Guillain-Barre Syndrome Following Influenza Vaccination

Haber P, DeStefano F, Angulo FJ, Iskander J, Shadomy SV, Weintraub E, Chen RT. Guillain-Barre syndrome following influenza vaccination. JAMA. 2004 Nov 24;292(20):2478-81.

CONTEXT: An unexplained increase in the risk of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) occurred among recipients of the swine influenza vaccine in 1976-1977. Guillain-Barre Syndrome remains the most frequent neurological condition reported after influenza vaccination to the vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) since its inception in 1990. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends of reports to VAERS of GBS following influenza vaccination in adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: VAERS is the US national spontaneous reporting system for adverse events following vaccination. Reports of GBS in persons 18 years or older following influenza vaccination were evaluated for each influenza season from July 1, 1990, through June 30, 2003. The number of people vaccinated was estimated from the National health Interview Survey and US census data. Beginning in 1994, active follow-up was conducted to verify GBS diagnosis and obtain other clinical details. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Reporting rates of GBS following influenza vaccination over time. RESULTS: From July 1990 through June 2003, VAERS received 501 reports of GBS following influenza vaccination in adults. The median onset interval (13 days) was longer than that of non-GBS reports of adverse events after influenza vaccine (1 day) (P<.001 the="" annual="" reporting="" rate="" decreased="" from="" a="" high="" of="" per="" vaccinees="" in="" to="" gbs="" diagnosis="" was="" confirmed="" reports.="" preceding="" illness="" within="" weeks="" href="" class="tagLink">vaccination was identified in 24% of reported cases. CONCLUSIONS: From 1990 to 2003, VAERS reporting rates of GBS after influenza vaccination decreased. The long onset interval and low prevalence of other preexisting illnesses are consistent with a possible causal association between GBS and influenza vaccine. These findings require additional research, which can lead to a fuller understanding of the causes of GBS and its possible relationship with influenza vaccine.

A Role for the Body Burden of Aluminium in Vaccine-Associated Macrophagic Myofasciitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Exley C, Swarbrick L, Gherardi RK, Authier FJ. A role for the body burden of aluminium in vaccine-associated macrophagic myofasciitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Feb;72(2):135-9. Epub 2008 Nov 11.

Macrophagic myofasciitis and chronic fatigue syndrome are severely disabling conditions which may be caused by adverse reactions to aluminium-containing adjuvants in vaccines. While a little is known of disease aetiology both conditions are characterised by an aberrant immune response, have a number of prominent symptoms in common and are coincident in many individuals. Herein, we have described a case of vaccine-associated chronic fatigue syndrome and macrophagic myofasciitis in an individual demonstrating aluminium overload. This is the first report linking the latter with either of these two conditions and the possibility is considered that the coincident aluminium overload contributed significantly to the severity of these conditions in this individual. This case has highlighted potential dangers associated with aluminium-containing adjuvants and we have elucidated a possible mechanism whereby vaccination involving aluminium-containing adjuvants could trigger the cascade of immunological events which are associated with autoimmune conditions including chronic fatigue syndrome and macrophagic myofasciitis.

Abnormal Measles-Mumps-Rubella Antibodies and CNS Autoimmunity in Children With Autism

Singh VK, Lin SX, Newell E, Nelson C. Abnormal Measles-Mumps-Rubella antibodies and CNS Autoimmunity in children With autism. J Biomed Sci. 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):359-64.

Autoimmunity to the central nervous system (CNS), especially to myelin basic protein (MBP), may play a causal role in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder. Because many autistic children harbor elevated levels of measles antibodies, we conducted a serological study of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and MBP autoantibodies. Using serum samples of 125 autistic children and 92 control children, antibodies were assayed by ELISA or immunoblotting methods. ELISA analysis showed a significant increase in the level of MMR antibodies in autistic children. Immunoblotting analysis revealed the presence of an unusual MMR antibody in 75 of 125 (60%) autistic sera but not in control sera. This antibody specifically detected a protein of 73-75 kD of MMR. This protein band, as analyzed with monoclonal antibodies, was immunopositive for measles hemagglutinin (HA) protein but not for measles nucleoprotein and rubella or mumps viral proteins. Thus the MMR antibody in autistic sera detected measles HA protein, which is unique to the measles subunit of the vaccine. Furthermore, over 90% of MMR antibody-positive autistic sera were also positive for MBP autoantibodies, suggesting a strong association between MMR and CNS autoimmunity in autism. Stemming from this evidence, we suggest that an inappropriate antibody response to MMR, specifically the measles component thereof, might be related to pathogenesis of autism.

Elevated Levels of Measles Antibodies in Children With Autism

Singh VK, Jensen RL. Elevated Levels of measles antibodies in children With Autism. Pediatr Neurol. 2003 Apr;28(4):292-4. Department of Biology and Biotechnology Center, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA.

Virus-induced autoimmunity may play a causal role in autism. To examine the etiologic link of viruses in this brain disorder, we conducted a serologic study of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. Viral antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of autistic children, normal children, and siblings of autistic children. The level of measles antibody, but not mumps or rubella antibodies, was significantly higher in autistic children as compared with normal children (P = 0.003) or siblings of autistic children (P measles vaccine virus revealed that the antibody was directed against a protein of approximately 74 kd molecular weight. The antibody to this antigen was found in 83% of autistic children but not in normal children or siblings of autistic children. Thus autistic children have a hyperimmune response to measles virus, which in the absence of a wild type of measles infection might be a sign of an abnormal immune reaction to the vaccine strain or virus reactivation.

High Secondary Vaccine Failure Amongst Teenagers Vaccinated For Measles At Young Age

Paunio M, Hedman K, Davidkin I, Valle M, Heinonen OP, Leinikki P, Salmi A, Peltola H. Department of Public health, University of Helsinki, Finland. Secondary measles vaccine failures identified by measurement of IgG avidity: high occurrence among teenagers vaccinated at a young age. Epidemiol Infect 2000 Apr;124(2):263-71

Failure to seroconvert (primary vaccine failure) is believed to be the principal reason (approx. > 95%) why some vaccinees remain susceptible to measles and is often attributed to the persistence of maternal antibodies in children vaccinated at a young age … Secondary measles-vaccine failures are more common than was more previously thought, particularly among individuals vaccinated in early life, long ago, and among re-vaccinees. Waning immunity even among individuals vaccinated after 15 months of age, without the boosting effect of natural infections should be considered a relevant possibility in future planning of vaccination against measles.

Selected UK MPs Launch Workers’ Vaccine Damage Early Day Motion

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11.06.2009, Stewart, Ian

That this House notes with concern the serious adverse reactions that some adults have suffered following receipt of the Hepatitis B and other vaccines, which they were required to have as a condition of their employment; further notes that such adults include doctors, nurses, paramedics, medical technicians and other health service personnel together with specialist civil servants, social workers, prison officers, refuse collectors and other public sector workers; recognises the devastating effect such adverse reactions can have on the long-term health of the individual, in some cases leading to debilitation and early retirement and a significant loss of income; further notes that there is no clear and transparent system of support for such adults as they are not eligible to make a claim under the vaccine damage Payment Act 1979 and often have to fight for industrial disablement benefits: acknowledges that in the United States 146 hepatitis cases have been fully compensated out of 578 applicants; and calls on the Government to include all occupational vaccines on the approved list under the vaccine damage Payment Act 1979, to provide for vaccine damage under the Industrial Injuries Scheme or establish a new scheme covering occupational vaccines for adults which includes all single and multiple vaccines and their component parts, and for the chosen scheme to protect all workers including those in training.

The signatories so far:

Stewart, Ian
Iddon, Brian
Miller, Andrew
Kaufman, Gerald
Sheridan, Jim
Willis, Phil
Russell, Bob
Hood, Jim
Jones, Lynne
Connarty, Michael
Dismore, Andrew
Borrow, David S
Taylor, David
Caton, Martin
Gerrard, Neil
Griffiths, Nigel
Palmer, Nick
Pound, Stephen
Purchase, Ken
Ruane, Chris
Havard, Dai
Howarth, George
Hoyle, Lindsay
Kilfoyle, Peter
Mackinlay, Andrew
Mallaber, Judy
Mann, John
Marshall-Andrews, Robert
Mullin, Chris
Murphy, Denis
Clarke, Tom
Clelland, David
Cook, Frank
Crausby, David
Cryer, Ann
Cummings, John
Davidson, Ian
Dean, Janet
Dobbin, Jim
Dobson, Frank
Dowd, Jim
Evans, Nigel
Flynn, Paul
Gapes, Mike
Godsiff, Roger
Hall, Patrick
Hamilton, David
Hancock, Mike
Anderson, Janet
Barron, Kevin
Begg, Anne
Betts, Clive
Taylor, Dari
Twigg, Derek
Wareing, Robert N
Wright, Anthony D
Anderson, David
Banks, Gordon
Hunter, Mark
Wilson, Phil
Roy, Lindsay
Humble, Joan
Meale, Alan
Burden, Richard
Clapham, Michael
Durkan, Mark
Strang, Gavin
Stringer, Graham
Turner, Desmond
Leech, John
Davies, Dai
Plaskitt, James
Pope, Greg
Prentice, Gordon
Price, Adam
Prosser, Gwyn
Illsley, Eric
Joyce, Eric
Keen, Alan
Lloyd, Tony
Love, Andrew
McDonnell, Alasdair
Olner, Bill
Opik, Lembit
Osborne, Sandra
Clwyd, Ann
Doran, Frank
Drew, David
Abbott, Diane
Ainger, Nick
Beith, Alan
Berry, Roger
Weir, Mike
Wicks, Malcolm
Thornberry, Emily
Mulholland, Greg

Source: EDM Parliament UK

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Childhood Chickenpox Associated With Decreased Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

Yann Mikaeloff, Guillaume Caridade, Samy Suissa, Marc Tardieu on Behalf of the KIDSEP Study Group. Clinically Observed chickenpox and the Risk of Childhood-onset Multiple Sclerosis. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009 169(10):1260-1266

Correspondence to Dr. Yann Mikaeloff, Service de Neurologie P?diatrique, CHU Bic?tre, Assistance publique-H?pitaux de Paris, 78 avenue du G?n?ral Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin-Bic?tre Cedex, France

The authors conducted a population-based case-control study to investigate whether clinically observed chickenpox, linked with a level of intensity for clinical expression, increases the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in childhood. The cases were MS patients whose disease onset occurred between 1994 and 2003, before age 16 years, in France. Each case was matched for age, sex, and geographic origin with as many as 12 controls randomly selected from the general population. Information about clinically observed chickenpox in cases and controls before the index date regarding onset of MS was collected with a standardized questionnaire and was checked against health certificates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for an association between MS and chickenpox. The 137 MS cases were matched with 1,061 controls. Clinically observed chickenpox had occurred in 76.6% of the cases and 84.9% of their matched controls. The adjusted odds ratio of MS onset associated with chickenpox occurrence was 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.36, 0.92). The authors concluded that clinically observed chickenpox was associated with a lower risk of childhood-onset MS in a French population.