Children Vaccinated With MMR and Higher Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

Ahlgren C, Toren K, Oden A, Andersen O. A population-based case-control study on viral infections and vaccinations and subsequent multiple sclerosis risk. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24(9):541-52. Epub 2009 Jul 26.

Viral infections are probably involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent cohort study in the Gothenburg population revealed no change in MS incidence associated with the introduction of the Swedish measles, mumps and rubella vaccination programmes. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether these infections or vaccinations, and two other infections, varicella and infectious mononucleosis, influence MS risk. We performed a population-based case-control study in Gothenburg that included 509 MS cases and 2,067 controls, born 1959-1986. Data on infections and vaccinations were obtained from questionnaires and from child health and school health records. We found no significant associations between measles, mumps, rubella or varicella and MS risk. These results were consistent between the two source materials. Infectious mononucleosis was associated with significantly higher MS risk (odds ratio 2.03, 95% CI 1.52-2.73). Overall, there was no significant association between measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and MS risk, while those MMR vaccinated before age ten only were at significantly higher MS risk (odds ratio 4.92, 95% CI 1.97-12.20). Those MMR vaccinated both before and after age ten had intermediate MS risk. Infection with measles, mumps, rubella and varicella did not influence MS risk in contrast to infectious mononucleosis which conferred doubled MS risk. The association with ‘early’ MMR vaccination only was an isolated finding, limited by a small number of subjects and multiple testing. Most likely this was a chance finding. Future studies could investigate it on an a priori basis.

A Possible Central Mechanism in Autism Spectrum Disorders








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Blaylock RL. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1. Altern Ther health Med. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):46-53.

The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of related neurodevelopmental disorders that have been increasing in incidence since the 1980s. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected from cases, a central mechanism has not been offered. A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminum and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain. It has now been shown that chronic microglial activation is present in autistic brains from age 5 years to age 44 years. A considerable amount of evidence, both experimental and clinical, indicates that repeated microglial activation can initiate priming of the microglia and that subsequent stimulation can produce an exaggerated microglial response that can be prolonged. It is also known that one phenotypic form of microglia activation can result in an outpouring of neurotoxic levels of the excitotoxins, glutamate and quinolinic acid. Studies have shown that careful control of brain glutamate levels is essential to brain pathway development and that excesses can result in arrest of neural migration, as well as dendritic and synaptic loss. It has also been shown that certain cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, can, via its receptor, interact with glutamate receptors to enhance the neurotoxic reaction. To describe this interaction I have coined the term immunoexcitotoxicity, which is described in this article.







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A One Year Followup of Chronic Arthritis Following Rubella and Hepatitis B Vaccination Based Upon Analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) Database








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A One Year Followup of Chronic Arthritis Following Rubella and Hepatitis B Vaccination Based Upon Analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) Database










Posted by vaccinesme, in Articles


Authored by PubMed






Topics:
Rubella
•
Hepatitis B
•
Arthritis
















Geier DA, Geier MR. A one year followup of chronic arthritis following rubella and Hepatitis B vaccination based upon analysis of the vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2002 Nov-Dec;20(6):767-71.

OBJECTIVES: This analysis examined the incidence rate of chronic arthritis adverse reactions reported following adult rubella and Hepatitis B vaccinations. In this analysis, etiologic mechanisms for chronic arthritis following adult rubella and Hepatitis B vaccines were also explored. METHODS: The vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database was analyzed for the incidence rate of reported cases of chronic arthritis in comparison to Tetanus-diphtheria (Td) and tetanus toxoid adult vaccine control groups. RESULTS: Chronic arthritis adverse reactions following adult rubella vaccination were primarily reported in females (female/male ratio = 3.0), at about 45 years-old, and at a mean onset time of 10-11 days following vaccination. Chronic arthritis adverse reactions following adult Hepatitis B vaccination were also primarily reported in females(female/male ratio = 3.5), at about 33 years-old, and with a mean onset time of 16 days following vaccination. The incidence rates of chronic arthritis following adult rubella and adult Hepatitis B vaccinations were statistically significantly increased, by chi 2 analysis, in comparison to the adult vaccine control groups. The attributable risk of chronic arthritis following adult rubella vaccine ranged from 32 to 53 and from 5.1 to 9.0 following adult Hepatitis B vaccine in comparison to the adult vaccine control groups. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that adult rubella and adult Hepatitis B vaccines were statistically associated with chronic arthritis which persisted for at least one year. The etiology for these adverse reactions may involve autoimmune mechanisms. Furthermore, potential biases in the reporting rates of adverse reactions to VAERS were not observed.







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A Modified Self-Controlled Case Series Method to Examine Association Between Multidose Vaccinations and Death

Kuhnert R, Hecker H, Poethko-Muller C, Schlaud M, Vennemann M, Whitaker HJ, Farrington CP. A modified self-controlled case series method to examine association between multidose vaccinations and death. Stat Med. 2011 Mar 15;30(6):666-77. Epub 2010 Nov 30.

The self-controlled case series method (SCCS) was developed to analyze the association between a time-varying exposure and an outcome event. We consider penta- or hexavalent vaccination as the exposure and unexplained sudden unexpected death (uSUD) as the event. The special situation of multiple exposures and a terminal event requires adaptation of the standard SCCS method. This paper proposes a new adaptation, in which observation periods are truncated according to the vaccination schedule. The new method exploits known minimum spacings between successive vaccine doses. Its advantage is that it is very much simpler to apply than the method for censored, perturbed or curtailed post-event exposures recently introduced. This paper presents a comparison of these two SCCS methods by simulation studies and an application to a real data set. In the simulation studies, the age distribution and the assumed vaccination schedule were based on real data. Only small differences between the two SCCS methods were observed, although 50 per cent of cases could not be included in the analysis with the SCCS method with truncated observation periods. By means of a study including 300 uSUD, a 16-fold risk increase after the 4th dose could be detected with a power of at least 90 per cent. A general 2-fold risk increase after vaccination could be detected with a power of 80 per cent. Reanalysis of data from cases of the German case-control study on sudden infant death (GeSID) resulted in slightly higher point estimates using the SCCS methods than the odds ratio obtained by the case-control analysis. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hair Mercury in Breast-Fed Infants Exposed to Thimerosal-Preserved Vaccines

Marques RC, Dorea JG, Fonseca MF, Bastos WR, Malm O. Hair mercury in breast-fed infants exposed to thimerosal-preserved vaccines. Eur J Pediatr. 2007 Sep;166(9):935-41. Epub 2007 Jan 20.

Because of uncertainties associated with a possible rise in neuro-developmental deficits among vaccinated children, thimerosal-preserved vaccines have not been used since 2004 in the USA (with the exception of thimerosal-containing influenza vaccines which are routinely recommended for administration to pregnant women and children), and the EU but are widely produced and used in other countries. We investigated the impact of thimerosal on the total Hg in hair of 82 breast-fed infants during the first 6 months of life. The infants received three doses of the hepatitis-B vaccine (at birth, 1 and 6 months) and three DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis) doses at 2, 4 and 6 months, according to the immunization schedule recommended by the Ministry of health of Brazil. The thimerosal in vaccines provided an ethylmercury (EtHg) exposure of 25 microgHg at birth, 30, 60 and 120 days, and 50 microgHg at 180 days. The exposure to vaccine-EtHg represents 80% of that expected from total breast milk-Hg in the first month but only 40% of the expected exposure integrated in the 6 months of breastfeeding. However, the Hg exposure corrected for body weight at the day of immunization was much higher from thimerosal- EtHg (5.7 to 11.3 microgHg/kg b.w.) than from breastfeeding (0.266 microgHg/kg b.w.). While mothers showed a relative decrease (-57%) in total hair-Hg during the 6 months lactation there was substantial increase in the infant’s hair-Hg (446%). We speculate that dose and parenteral mode of thimerosal-EtHg exposure modulated the relative increase in hair-Hg of breast-fed infants at 6 months of age.

Abnormal Measles-Mumps-Rubella Antibodies and CNS Autoimmunity in Children With Autism

Singh VK, Lin SX, Newell E, Nelson C. Abnormal Measles-Mumps-Rubella antibodies and CNS Autoimmunity in children With autism. J Biomed Sci. 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):359-64.

Autoimmunity to the central nervous system (CNS), especially to myelin basic protein (MBP), may play a causal role in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder. Because many autistic children harbor elevated levels of measles antibodies, we conducted a serological study of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and MBP autoantibodies. Using serum samples of 125 autistic children and 92 control children, antibodies were assayed by ELISA or immunoblotting methods. ELISA analysis showed a significant increase in the level of MMR antibodies in autistic children. Immunoblotting analysis revealed the presence of an unusual MMR antibody in 75 of 125 (60%) autistic sera but not in control sera. This antibody specifically detected a protein of 73-75 kD of MMR. This protein band, as analyzed with monoclonal antibodies, was immunopositive for measles hemagglutinin (HA) protein but not for measles nucleoprotein and rubella or mumps viral proteins. Thus the MMR antibody in autistic sera detected measles HA protein, which is unique to the measles subunit of the vaccine. Furthermore, over 90% of MMR antibody-positive autistic sera were also positive for MBP autoantibodies, suggesting a strong association between MMR and CNS autoimmunity in autism. Stemming from this evidence, we suggest that an inappropriate antibody response to MMR, specifically the measles component thereof, might be related to pathogenesis of autism.

Elevated Levels of Measles Antibodies in Children With Autism

Singh VK, Jensen RL. Elevated Levels of measles antibodies in children With Autism. Pediatr Neurol. 2003 Apr;28(4):292-4. Department of Biology and Biotechnology Center, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA.

Virus-induced autoimmunity may play a causal role in autism. To examine the etiologic link of viruses in this brain disorder, we conducted a serologic study of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. Viral antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of autistic children, normal children, and siblings of autistic children. The level of measles antibody, but not mumps or rubella antibodies, was significantly higher in autistic children as compared with normal children (P = 0.003) or siblings of autistic children (P measles vaccine virus revealed that the antibody was directed against a protein of approximately 74 kd molecular weight. The antibody to this antigen was found in 83% of autistic children but not in normal children or siblings of autistic children. Thus autistic children have a hyperimmune response to measles virus, which in the absence of a wild type of measles infection might be a sign of an abnormal immune reaction to the vaccine strain or virus reactivation.

High Secondary Vaccine Failure Amongst Teenagers Vaccinated For Measles At Young Age

Paunio M, Hedman K, Davidkin I, Valle M, Heinonen OP, Leinikki P, Salmi A, Peltola H. Department of Public health, University of Helsinki, Finland. Secondary measles vaccine failures identified by measurement of IgG avidity: high occurrence among teenagers vaccinated at a young age. Epidemiol Infect 2000 Apr;124(2):263-71

Failure to seroconvert (primary vaccine failure) is believed to be the principal reason (approx. > 95%) why some vaccinees remain susceptible to measles and is often attributed to the persistence of maternal antibodies in children vaccinated at a young age … Secondary measles-vaccine failures are more common than was more previously thought, particularly among individuals vaccinated in early life, long ago, and among re-vaccinees. Waning immunity even among individuals vaccinated after 15 months of age, without the boosting effect of natural infections should be considered a relevant possibility in future planning of vaccination against measles.

Selected UK MPs Launch Workers’ Vaccine Damage Early Day Motion








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PAYMENTS FOR WORKERS DAMAGED BY VACCINES
11.06.2009, Stewart, Ian


That this House notes with concern the serious adverse reactions that some adults have suffered following receipt of the Hepatitis B and other vaccines, which they were required to have as a condition of their employment; further notes that such adults include doctors, nurses, paramedics, medical technicians and other health service personnel together with specialist civil servants, social workers, prison officers, refuse collectors and other public sector workers; recognises the devastating effect such adverse reactions can have on the long-term health of the individual, in some cases leading to debilitation and early retirement and a significant loss of income; further notes that there is no clear and transparent system of support for such adults as they are not eligible to make a claim under the vaccine damage Payment Act 1979 and often have to fight for industrial disablement benefits: acknowledges that in the United States 146 hepatitis cases have been fully compensated out of 578 applicants; and calls on the Government to include all occupational vaccines on the approved list under the vaccine damage Payment Act 1979, to provide for vaccine damage under the Industrial Injuries Scheme or establish a new scheme covering occupational vaccines for adults which includes all single and multiple vaccines and their component parts, and for the chosen scheme to protect all workers including those in training.


The signatories so far:

Stewart, Ian
Iddon, Brian
Miller, Andrew
Kaufman, Gerald
Sheridan, Jim
Willis, Phil
Russell, Bob
Hood, Jim
Jones, Lynne
Connarty, Michael
Dismore, Andrew
Borrow, David S
Taylor, David
Caton, Martin
Gerrard, Neil
Griffiths, Nigel
Palmer, Nick
Pound, Stephen
Purchase, Ken
Ruane, Chris
Havard, Dai
Howarth, George
Hoyle, Lindsay
Kilfoyle, Peter
Mackinlay, Andrew
Mallaber, Judy
Mann, John
Marshall-Andrews, Robert
Mullin, Chris
Murphy, Denis
Clarke, Tom
Clelland, David
Cook, Frank
Crausby, David
Cryer, Ann
Cummings, John
Davidson, Ian
Dean, Janet
Dobbin, Jim
Dobson, Frank
Dowd, Jim
Evans, Nigel
Flynn, Paul
Gapes, Mike
Godsiff, Roger
Hall, Patrick
Hamilton, David
Hancock, Mike
Anderson, Janet
Barron, Kevin
Begg, Anne
Betts, Clive
Taylor, Dari
Twigg, Derek
Wareing, Robert N
Wright, Anthony D
Anderson, David
Banks, Gordon
Hunter, Mark
Wilson, Phil
Roy, Lindsay
Humble, Joan
Meale, Alan
Burden, Richard
Clapham, Michael
Durkan, Mark
Strang, Gavin
Stringer, Graham
Turner, Desmond
Leech, John
Davies, Dai
Plaskitt, James
Pope, Greg
Prentice, Gordon
Price, Adam
Prosser, Gwyn
Illsley, Eric
Joyce, Eric
Keen, Alan
Lloyd, Tony
Love, Andrew
McDonnell, Alasdair
Olner, Bill
Opik, Lembit
Osborne, Sandra
Clwyd, Ann
Doran, Frank
Drew, David
Abbott, Diane
Ainger, Nick
Beith, Alan
Berry, Roger
Weir, Mike
Wicks, Malcolm
Thornberry, Emily
Mulholland, Greg



Source: EDM Parliament UK







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Childhood Chickenpox Associated With Decreased Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

Yann Mikaeloff, Guillaume Caridade, Samy Suissa, Marc Tardieu on Behalf of the KIDSEP Study Group. Clinically Observed chickenpox and the Risk of Childhood-onset Multiple Sclerosis. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009 169(10):1260-1266


Correspondence to Dr. Yann Mikaeloff, Service de Neurologie P?diatrique, CHU Bic?tre, Assistance publique-H?pitaux de Paris, 78 avenue du G?n?ral Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin-Bic?tre Cedex, France

The authors conducted a population-based case-control study to investigate whether clinically observed chickenpox, linked with a level of intensity for clinical expression, increases the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in childhood. The cases were MS patients whose disease onset occurred between 1994 and 2003, before age 16 years, in France. Each case was matched for age, sex, and geographic origin with as many as 12 controls randomly selected from the general population. Information about clinically observed chickenpox in cases and controls before the index date regarding onset of MS was collected with a standardized questionnaire and was checked against health certificates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for an association between MS and chickenpox. The 137 MS cases were matched with 1,061 controls. Clinically observed chickenpox had occurred in 76.6% of the cases and 84.9% of their matched controls. The adjusted odds ratio of MS onset associated with chickenpox occurrence was 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.36, 0.92). The authors concluded that clinically observed chickenpox was associated with a lower risk of childhood-onset MS in a French population.